Download E-books Subjunctive Conditionals: A Linguistic Analysis (Linguistic Inquiry Monographs) PDF

By Michela Ippolito

In this publication, Michela Ippolito proposes a compositional semantics for subjunctive (or could) conditionals in English that bills for his or her felicity stipulations and the restrictions at the pride in their presuppositions through capitalizing at the incidence of earlier demanding morphology in either antecedent and consequent clauses. little or no of the large literature on subjunctive conditionals attempts to account for the that means of those sentences compositionally or to narrate this desiring to their linguistic shape; this ebook fills that hole, connecting the several strains of analysis on conditionals. Ippolito's notion could be of curiosity either to linguists and to philosophers fascinated about conditionals and modality extra generally.

Ippolito reports earlier analyses of counterfactuals and subjunctive conditionals within the paintings of David Lewis, Robert Stalnaker, Angelika Kratzer, and others; considers the distinction among destiny uncomplicated previous subjunctive conditionals and destiny earlier excellent subjunctive conditionals; offers an offer for subjunctive conditionals that addresses puzzles left unsolved by means of earlier proposals; stories a couple of presupposition triggers exhibiting that they healthy the trend estimated by means of her notion; and discusses an asymmetry among the earlier and the longer term between subjunctive conditionals, arguing that the easiest account of our linguistic intuitions needs to comprise an indeterministic view of the world.

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Download E-books Topics in Constraint-Based Grammar of Japanese (Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy) PDF

This choice of papers reviews our try and comic strip how jap grammar could be represented in a constraint-based formalism. Our first try out of this nature seemed a decade in the past as jap word constitution Grammar (Gunji 1987) and in numerous papers following the ebook of the e-book. This ebook has advanced from a technical memo that was once a development file at the eastern word constitution grammar (JPSG) venture, which was once performed as an task of the JPSG operating crew at ICOT (Institute for New-Generation Computing know-how) from 1984 to 1992. JPSG implements principles from contemporary advancements in word constitution grammar formalism, reminiscent of head-driven word constitution grammar (HPSG), (see Pollard & Sag 1987, 1994) as utilized to the japanese language. the most target of this venture was once to country a number of grammatical regularities exhibited in ordinary language more often than not (and in eastern specifically) as a suite of neighborhood constraints. The e-book is geared up in components. half I provides an summary of advancements in our framework after the ebook of Gunji (1987), introducing our basic assumptions in addition to discussing quite a few points of eastern within the constraint­ established formalism and summarizing discussions of the JPSG operating workforce throughout the above-mentioned interval. evidently, within the interval after the book of the above ebook, our dialogue was once situated on subject matters no longer coated within the e-book.

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Download E-books Locality in WH Quantification: Questions and Relative Clauses in Hindi (Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy) PDF

Locality in WH Quantification argues that Logical shape, the extent that mediates among syntax and semantics, is derived from S-structure via neighborhood flow. the first information for the declare of locality at LF is drawn from Hindi yet English information is utilized in discussing the semantics of questions and relative clauses. The ebook takes a cross-linguistic standpoint exhibiting how the Hindi and English evidence will be dropped at endure at the thought of common grammar.
There are numerous phenomena regularly proposal to contain long-distance dependencies at LF, equivalent to scope marking, long-distance record solutions and correlatives. during this ebook they're dealt with by way of explicating novel different types of neighborhood relationships that interrogative and relative clauses can input. A extra articulated semantics is proven resulting in an easier syntax.
between different concerns addressed is the change from uniqueness/maximality results in unmarried wh buildings to record readings in a number of wh buildings. those results are captured by way of adapting the remedy of wh expressions as quantifying over capabilities to the instances of a number of wh questions and correlatives. record readings because of practical dependencies are systematically unique from those who are in line with plurality.

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Download E-books Taking Scope: The Natural Semantics of Quantifiers (MIT Press) PDF

By Mark Steedman

In Taking Scope, Mark Steedman considers the syntax and semantics of quantifier scope in interplay with negation, polarity, coordination, and pronominal binding, between different buildings. The semantics is "surface compositional," in that there's a direct correspondence among syntactic forms and operations of composition and kinds and compositions on the point of logical shape. In that experience, the semantics is within the "natural common sense" culture of Aristotle, Leibniz, Frege, Russell, and others who sought to outline a psychologically actual common sense at once reflecting typical language grammar.The ebook reunites the generative-transformational culture initiated by way of Chomsky--which perspectives the formal syntactic part as totally autonomous---with the older, strongly lexicalist, construction-based culture, which has sought to outline a extra lingistically obvious idea of that means illustration. Steedman deals a logical formalism that relates on to the outside kind of language and to the method of inference and evidence that it needs to help. the sort of traditional good judgment, even supposing formal through definition, can be allowed to develop organically from attested language phenomena instead of be axiomatized a priori when it comes to any normal good judgment. Steedman additionally considers the appliance of typical semantic interpretations to functional normal language processing initiatives, emphasizing during the removing of conventional quantifiers from semantic formalism in desire of units akin to Skolem phrases and structure-sharing between representations in processing.

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Download E-books Vagueness and Language Use (Palgrave Studies in Pragmatics, Language and Cognition) PDF

This quantity brings jointly twelve papers through linguists and philosophers contributing novel empirical and formal concerns to theorizing approximately vagueness. 3 major matters are addressed: gradable expressions and comparability, the semantics of measure adverbs and intensifiers (such as 'clearly'), and methods of evading the sorites paradox.

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Download E-books Tense, Attitudes, and Scope (Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy) PDF

Tense, Attitudes, and Scope is a model-theoretic inquiry into the semantics of demanding in typical language. The ebook provides the view that the semantic contribution of demanding is made relating to structurally better expressions (the `relative demanding theory') and argues opposed to the view that tenses are all indexicals. this concept is officially encoded as a de se research of attitudes, initially proposed by way of Lewis, coupled with a sequence-of-tense rule posited for English. An auxiliary notion is made to account for a few extraordinary circumstances (e.g. so-called double-access sentences), which invokes de re attitudes approximately temporal entities (states or intervals). because the proposed account assumes that the translation of demanding is structure-dependent, it additionally effectively predicts scope interactions among tenses and Nps.
Tense, Attitudes, and Scope is meant for students and graduate scholars in formal semantics, syntax-semantics interface, philosophy of language and eastern linguistics.

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Download E-books Word Meaning and Montague Grammar: The Semantics of Verbs and Times in Generative Semantics and in Montague's PTQ (Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy, Vol. 7) PDF

By David R. Dowty

The main common aim of this publication is to suggest and illustrate a application of study in notice semantics that mixes a few of the technique and leads to linguistic semantics, essentially that of the generative semantics college, with the carefully formalized syntactic and semantic framework for the research of average languages built by means of Richard Montague and his affiliates, a framework within which fact and denotation with appreciate to a version are taken because the basic semantic notions. i'm hoping to teach, either from the linguist's and the philosopher's perspective, not just why this synthesis could be undertaken but in addition why it is going to be helpful to pursue it. at the one hand, the linguists' decompositions of note meanings into extra primitive elements are by means of themselves inherently incomplete, in that they deal in simple terms in differences in that means with out offering an account of what suggest­ ings quite are. not just can those analyses be made entire through a version­ theoretic semantics, but in addition such an account of those analyses renders them extra targeted and extra conveniently testable than they can ever be another way.

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Download E-books Nonsentential Constituents: A theory of grammatical structure and pragmatic interpretation (Pragmatics & Beyond New Series) PDF

Linguists typically have assumed that complete sentence resources truncated through ellipsis ideas account for the grammatical constitution in addition to the semantic interpretation of fragments like B under: A: What occurred in 1974? B: A scandal within the White condominium. A sentential constitution ruled via the preliminary node of S is lowered to a fraction by way of the operation of ellipsis, and it's the complete sentential resource that offers the semantic interpretation for the rest fragment.Barton argues opposed to either one of those assumptions. She claims that self sufficient significant lexical different types just like the instance above are generated inside a grammar as syntactic buildings ruled by means of the preliminary node of NP, vice president, etc, instead of S. Her moment declare is that the most important a part of the translation of those self sufficient constituent utterances happens inside a practical context, instead of within the semantic element of a grammar. A idea of nonsentential components is gifted together with interacting types: an self sufficient competence version of the grammar of nonsentential constituent constructions, and a modular pragmatic version of the translation of self reliant constituent utterances in context.

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Download E-books Key Terms in Stylistics PDF

By Nina Nørgaard

Stylistics is the learn of the ways that that means is created and formed via language in literature and in different kinds of textual content. key words in Stylistics presents the reader with a accomplished evaluate of the sector, besides sections that specify correct phrases, ideas and key thinkers indexed from A to Z.

The booklet contains entries on assorted stylistic techniques to textual content, together with feminist, cognitive, corpus and multimodal stylistics. there's assurance of key thinkers and their paintings in addition to of crucial phrases and ideas. It ends with a finished bibliography of key texts.

The publication is written in an available demeanour, explaining tough innovations in a simple manner. it is going to attract either newbie and upper-level scholars operating within the interface among language, linguistics and literature.

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